The Millers started the brighter of the two teams and dominated the first 20 minutes, as Tom Pope went close inside the opening stages with a header just wide from Stephen Brogan's corner.
Brogan was making his first start in a Rotherham shirt this season following injury to Kevin Ellison, and fired another shot on the quarter hour which was smothered by Hatters 'keeper and ex-Miller Kevin Pilkington.
Against the run of play Luton took a 21st minute lead as a rare break into Rotherham territory by Claude Gnapka saw him hacked down by Andy Nicholas in the box.
Tom Craddock stepped up and fired past Andy Warrington from the spot to make it 1-0.
Ian Sharps then came closest to levelling affairs just after the half hour, but his goalbound header was cleared off the line.
The lively Gnapka proved the visitors main threat in the first period down the right flank, as his fierce shot whistled wide five minutes before the break.
However the Millers deservedly drew level in first half stoppage time, as good work by Pope out wide saw the striker fire in a low cross for Adam Le Fondre to slde the ball home.
Brogan then gave the Millers the lead just after the hour, cushioning in a header from Gary Roberts' pin point cross into the area.
But the Blue Square Premier side refused to lay down and equalised through Mark Nwokeji, who came off the bench to beat Warrington after being put clear by Kevin Nicholls.
Roberts then went close with another shot on target and sub Danny Harrison shot wide on 83 minutes but Rotherham couldn't force the third.
And Brogan almost had the final say on 89 minutes as his effort beat Pilkington but drifted wide of the upright.