The versatile left-sided player spent a month at York Street, appearing six times and scoring one goal for the Pilgrims.
"It is good to have Greeny back at the club," Rotherham caretaker assistant Paul Warne told the club's official website.
"Jamie is a great lad and good player. He has done very well on loan at Boston and has come back in good shape and will now compete for a place in the squad."
Green, 21, has featured six times for the Millers first team this season and will now be available to caretaker manager Andy Liddell for the promotion run-in.